Motivation | Mosaicproject's BlogDouglas McGregor first proposed his famous XY Theory in to help people develop a more positive management style. Theory X - 'Authoritarian Management' Style. Characteristics of an X-theory manager. Managing an X-theory boss. Theory Y - 'Participative Management' Style. Theory Z - William Ouchi. Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques.
Theory X and Theory Y
The framework for modern management is firmly rooted in the concepts of scientific management developed during the industrial revolution, formalised by Frederick Taylor and the Gilbreths. Workers were closely supervised, the method of working designed in detail time and motion studies and payments were based on work accomplished piece rates. Where piece rates were not practical, supervision was intensified . A worker received a reasonable wage, was paid whilst being trained and both the worker and his foreman received bonuses once the worker had learned to achieve the production target. However, this type of motivation only works where the work items can be counted. Vroom developed his Expectancy theory through his study of the motivations behind decision making. It proposes that an individual will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behaviour over other behaviours due to what they expect the result of that selected behaviour will be ie, their expectations based on pervious experience or observation.
The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor's X-Y theory and its relationship Theory X and Theory Y was an idea devised by Douglas McGregor in his book.
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Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision.