T.H. Marshall: Citizenship and Social Class – Political SociologyAccording to T. Marshall, citizenship is a status conferred upon an individual by virtue of his or her being full member of a community. Citizens of a community are equal in terms of the rights and duties granted to them by such a status. Therefore, in a very fundamental respect, the developing institution of citizenship aims at creating more equality in society. Rights and duties of citizens can vary in different historical contexts. But the aspiration of achieving greater equality by extending the status of equal citizenship to more number of peopleis the yardstick of ideal citizenship in all societies. In his study called Citizenship and Social Class , one of the purposes of Marshall is to trace the historical evolution of the institution of citizenship in England since the latter part of the seventeenth century till the end of nineteenth century.
T.H. Marshall's Social Citizenship
Marshall concludes his essay with three major factors for the evolution of social rights and for their further evolution, listed below:. However, these have also become controversial issues as there is a debate over whether a citizen truly has the right to education and even more so, to social welfare. And, feminists see social rights as giving an opportunity to many women to utilize their civil and political rights just as Marshall suggests white men in England in the s are able to do. Marshall's original proposition to look at how gender inequality has led to a dismissal of social citizenship within the United States. Gradually, the male sphere began to dominate more and more of human relations, and thus contractual relations encroached on more and more areas.
Social Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #21